This YouTube video discusses the differences between sugar and corn syrup.
While table sugar is derived from sugar cane and consists of glucose and fructose, corn syrup is made from corn starch that is broken down into individual glucose molecules and partially converted into fructose. A 2010 analysis found that high fructose corn syrup contains more carbohydrates than the listed value, particularly in the form of shorter chains of starch.
Interestingly, studies have shown that sucrose, or table sugar, is a superior source of energy compared to corn syrup, with animals fed sucrose having increased energy expenditure and staying leaner and warmer. This challenges the assumption that high fructose corn syrup and table sugar are essentially the same.
Animal studies have shown that consuming high fructose corn syrup leads to more weight gain and obesity-related characteristics, while sucrose tends to increase lean mass. Additionally, high fructose corn syrup has been associated with liver fat gain, unlike table sugar. These effects are not dependent on caloric intake, suggesting that high fructose corn syrup may have unique properties.